Anorexia Nervosa

Avoiding, eating the required quantities of food and hence associated weight loss that is not healthy and is excessive. It is common among people who fear unwanted weight gain which is unnecessary in most cases. Anorexia nervosa might be caused by too much exercise, excessive restriction of diet, etc.


  • Individuals who are underweight fear becoming obese.
  • Who have an abnormal body shape and do not comprehend the gravity of weight loss.
  • Menstrual cycles not occurring for 3 months.
  • Victims might not eat at all or if forced to eat, vomit all the food forcefully.
  • Unnecessary use of water pills, diet pills, laxatives, etc.
  • Feeling depressed.
  • Yellowish coloration of skin covered by hair.
  • Delirium, lack of judgment.
  • Dryness of the mouth.
  • Weakness of the bones.
  • Feeling cold when it is not very cold.
  • Atrophy in several areas of the body and
  • Loss of fat in the body.


The exact causes of the disorder have not been identified as of yet. However, it has been attributed to several factors that might cause the condition like

  • Hormones
  • Genetic Factors
  • Social conditions

The risk factors include:

  • Imposing strict rules on themselves.
  • Over attentive to details like weight, shape appearance, etc.
  • Problems related to eating during childhood.
  • Anxiety disorders as a child.
  • Thinking low of one’s appearance.

Prevalence: The disorder is highly prevalent in women especially among the women belonging to a family that gives more importance to self-respect. It can also occur in men.


Diagnosis involves a set of tests that confirm the disorder by testing for diseases like Addison’s, celiac, and inflammatory bowel disorders all of which might be responsible for the loss of weight.

If the patient is tested to be negative then the tests to find the cause of the weight loss and the extent of damage caused by weight loss are found out. They include:

  • Levels of Albumin.
  • Bone density check.
  • Complete Blood Count.
  • Kidney tests.
  • Liver functioning tests.
  • Protein levels check.
  • Thyroid function tests.
  • Analysis of urine sample.


Treatment of the patients is really a tough job, as the individuals do not realize that they have a disorder. Also, they do not approach the doctor until the condition of the disease is worse.

The Psychosocial treatment includes:

  • Improving social interaction.
  • Decreasing unnecessary exercise.
  • Following proper diet time-tables.
  • CBT.

Proper psychological support has proven time and time again to be beneficial in disorder treatment and recovery. Visit Estadt Psychological Services to find the right professional for you.

The somatic treatment includes drugs to aid in depression or anxiety and no reliable drugs to treat weight loss are available.

  • Antidepressants.
  • Olanzapine.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

In severe cases, hospitalization might be required to treat malnutrition and weakness.


Identifying the change in the individual and helping them understand the complications, talk therapy, healthy maintenance of weight, and diet are useful in the prevention of the disease. This might not be possible in all cases as early identification is difficult.


40% of the cases diagnosed in recent times are girls between the ages of 14-20.

Almost 1% of the women in the world have anorexia nervosa and they are majorly from the urban lifestyles

90% of the anorexia cases occur in women.


Keep Your Cool During The Summer

Keep Your Cool During The Summer
If we take proper precautions, enjoying the outdoors during the summer months can be a walk in the park!

When summer is in full swing, the heat is blistering at times, it makes sense to take the adequate measures to prevent heat illness, dehydration and the damaging effects they can bring. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) states that between 1979 and 2003, 8015 people succumbed from excessive heat exposure. That was more deaths during the same period in this country than from hurricanes, lightning, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined.

Heat related illness happens when the body cannot cool itself properly and the body becomes over-heated. Generally sweating cools the body but when it is not sufficient, damage to the brain and other internal organs can occur. Although everyone is susceptible to extreme heat, special attention should be paid to/by those who are dehydrated, older, obese, have a fever, have heart disease, are mentally ill, have poor circulation, are sunburned, use prescription drugs or alcohol.

Healthy and young people participating in strenuous activity should exercise caution as well. When temperatures are high remember to keep cool and follow these suggestions from the CDC:


Increase fluid intake during hot weather; drink 8 ounces. of fluid (not alcohol) every 15 minutes.

Replace salt and minerals lost during sweating by consuming a sports drink, most contain the minerals you’ll lose from sweating.

Limit outdoor activity to early morning or evening if possible; if not take breaks in the shade to allow your body’s thermostat to recover.

Pace yourself while performing outdoor activities, if you become faint, lightheaded, weak or confused get to a cool area or at least some shade and rest.

Stay cool indoors as well; if you don’t have air-conditioning go to a public place that does such as a mall or public library or call the health department to find the nearest cooling shelter.

Check on those who are more susceptible to extreme heat (infants and children, people older than 65, obese individuals, and the physically and mentally ill) at least twice a day. If they live alone, go by and check on them.

Gradually adjust to the environment: if it suddenly becomes hot take it easy, if you travel to a region with warmer weather than you’re accustomed to give yourself a few days to become acclimated to the heat.

Do not leave children or pets in the car unattended. Temperatures can rise very quickly in the first 10 minutes even with the windows down. Before leaving your car check to make sure everyone is out.

sun protection

Wear appropiate clothing and sunscreen when venturing outdoors: light-weight, light-colored loose fitting clothes are best. Also use a sunscreen (15 SPF or higher) to protect exposed skin. Wearing sunglasses and a wide brim hat can provide protection from the sun’s rays as well.

Use common sense; avoid hot and heavy meals that can increase the body temperature, replace fluids and minerals with appropriate fluids, dress infants in light weight, light colored clothing and remember to protect their heads from the sun as well. Make sure to give pets plenty of fresh water as well!

Safe Swimming Advice for Vacationing Families

Safe Swimming Advice for Vacationing Families
Water Safety Rules Make Vacations Truly Fun for Everyone

A vacation to an exotic beach destination is a dream getaway every family hopes for. What’s not to love about spending a few weeks at a sandy beach with calm and clear waters that’s safe for swimming? Sometimes the water is so clear one can see the pebbled bottom. But even though waters look calm and pretty, they still present dangers to young children. So while they are off relaxing, parents can never relax their vigilance.

According to professional lifeguards, kids should be supervised constantly. Watch them entering and leaving pools, watch them swimming, and watch how deeply they wade. Watch them playing on beaches where tides and undertows can change things in a flash. One lifeguard supervisor stresses that whenever possible, a parent should not only watch, but be right there next to his or her child.

Be Informed for Safer Swimming

Besides being observant, parents also need to aware – aware of their child’s swimming ability for starters. Knowing how to float, tread water, breathe and swim, are all essential to water safety. Parents can also build awareness with tips from sources like The Swim for Life Foundation, a national organization dedicated to drowning prevention, or Johnson & Johnson health programs.

Here are more swim safety tips every family should practice:

  • Stay in areas of a lake, ocean or pool where a lifeguard is present (if there is no guard, only swim with a qualified buddy)Swim safety tips - lifeguard
  • Read the depth markers on pools and check if the child’s feet can touch the bottom
  • Get swimming instruction from a Red Cross certified program (most gyms teach children to swim as early as eighteen months of age)
  • Learn about jellyfish and teach kids how to spot them and avoid stings ( as well as where to go and what to do should someone get stung)
  • Consult hotel staff or local news to learn the water temperature, and about possible natural/weather hazards
  • Never dive into shallow pool waters or from the shore of a lake
  • Differentiate a toy from a swim aid. Only use approved flotation devices when swimming and boating
  • Keep calm, composed, and confident. Panic only increases the possibility of drowning

These rules are good for families on vacation. When the family has a pool at home, many of the same rules apply. Families that own pools must also secure the pool area – with a fence, lock, cover and/or alarm.

call emergencyAnother way to keep water safety in mind is with the term Safer Three. Its three elements are Safer Water, Safer Kids and Safer Response. Safer Water is about observing and fencing in pools and water play areas, Safer Kids is about teaching kids safety rules and getting them swim instruction. Safer Response encompasses learning CPR and educating youngsters to contact 9-1-1 Emergency Services personnel.

Remember, packing gets a family ready for a vacation, but there are other ways to fully prepare for a trip. Make sure safe swimming rules are part of the family vacation plans. Then everyone can really relax and have a good time.

The Importance of Safety Training on a Construction Site


The Importance of Safety Training on a Construction Site - Preventing Accidents and Injuries

Construction, one of the most hazardous industries for an employee to work in, has very high death and injury rates globally. Workers are exposed to potential risks on a daily basis. This is the reason why staff at construction sites have to be regularly trained on how to identify and avoid workplace hazards.

The Law Concerning Workplace Safety

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970 was passed in the United States to place the responsibility on employers to ensure that all employees and staff have safe working environments. In construction, this requires taking action to remove or reduce the number and severity of hazards encountered on site, as well as providing adequate and ongoing training to ensure workers are able to identify and avoid any risks that they are exposed to.

In the UK, the Health and Safety at Work Act was passed in 1974, and serves the same function as the Occupational Safety and Health Act in the United States; to ensure that all workers retain the right to carry out roles and functions in a safe environment.

Hazards Found on a Construction SiteThe Importance of Safety Training on a Construction Site - Hazards Found on a Construction Site

Construction workers are exposed to a number of hazards while on site. Heavy machinery poses a risk of crushing, which can cause severe injuries or even death. For those working in the vicinity of electrical cables, the risk of electrocution can have similar consequences.

Those working at height run the risk of falls. Even those not involved with operating heavy machinery or working from height can be at risk of injuries or conditions, such as stepping on a nail or suffering temporary hearing loss from working in a noisy area.

The Importance of Safety Training on a Construction SiteThe Importance of Safety Training in Construction

All workers of a construction firm have to be updated on safety training. Without proper training, workers in the construction industry wouldn’t be equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to spot potential safety risks given the dangerous work conditions. All employees must be trained to safely remove or minimize work hazards to prevent more harm and injury.  If workers feel that their health and safety is at great risk, they might feel neglected, affecting productivity levels and employee loyalty.

Safety training is also a great way for employers to prevent legal complications. By ensuring that they have provided their employees with the necessary training to prevent injuries and accidents, the construction company can prove that they have taken steps to maintain health and safety in the workplace.

The Consequences of Being Negligent when Providing Training

Any company that is found to be negligent in providing employees with a safe working environment is at risk of employees suffering serious injuries or even fatalities on construction sites. This leaves the company vulnerable to compensation claims, which can be financially damaging, or even crippling for smaller businesses.

The reputation of a company will also be severely affected, resulting in unhappy workers who may seek employment elsewhere. Clients who are not confident in a company’s ability to manage a safe site may take business to a competitor with a better safety record.

Safety is of paramount importance in any company; but some industries find themselves more exposed to risk than others. Managing this risk is a vitally important part of business, and can avoid complications and problems in the future.

How Employers Can Help Relieve Workplace Stress

How Employers Can Help Relieve Workplace Stress

Workplace stress is contagious. Whatever fine filaments, which connect individuals, transmit stress most effectively from one person to another. Whether it be a grimace covered by a smile or a tendency to talk quickly, humans are very good at picking up on threat. It’s a survival mechanism. If one individual in the herd perceives a threat, its probably a good idea for everyone to take note. If its the boss, its even more important and this top-down transmission can damage a workplace. Unmanaged and unacknowledged stress has to go somewhere, but the degree of separation and inadequate communication in stressful times makes it difficult for subordinates to fix a problem, which didn’t originate with them.

Acknowledging Stress in the Workplace

Managing stress in the workplace is clearly as important for managers and employers as the other roles they perform and managing their own stress by acknowledging it to subordinates is a very good place to start. Culturally, there is a tendency to view personal stress in the workplace as a weakness, but the fight-flight response indicates that stress is a life-saving and natural part of life. Managing excessive stress and supporting stressed employees in an open manner really is part of the job.

According to The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions’ year 2000 survey, which periodically gathers data on the European Union’s working population, there appears to be a high correlation between stress, musculo-skeletal disorders and features of work organisation, such as repetitive work and work pace. Therefore, it can be said that carrying unacknowledged stress in the workplace is leading to physical health problems and the culture of a business plays into the stress levels of employees. There may be some truth in the saying that when it comes to stress, “People don’t leave bad jobs; they leave bad managers.”

Moreover, Australian experts in this field of workplace support say that workplace stress should be addressed immediately to avoid a decline in employee productivity. When employees suffer from unresolved stress, performance and job satisfaction are affected.

Employer-Initated Stress Management Programs

How Employers Can Help Relieve Workplace Stress - Employer-initiated Stress Management Programs

Some suggestions for de-stressing the workplace:

  • Recognise stress as a serious issue for individuals and business as a whole.To engender team support, celebrate periods of intense productivity as a group to show appreciation.
  • No matter how intense the workload, keep communications channels open. The more stress, the more communication needed.
  • Legitimise anti-stress techniques, such as massage and meditation.
  • Share methods of stress reduction openly.
  • Consider time-out as a viable antidote to a very stressed employee.
  • Encourage laughter (those email jokes are not such a bad idea).
  • Listen to ideas posed by employees. Inspiration deposes stress.
  • Recognise that personal issues influence work performance because everyone is human.
  • As a boss or management figure, apologise when personal stress leads to irritability.

How Employers Can Help Relieve Workplace Stress - Executive Stress Leads to Employee StressExecutive Stress Leads to Employee Stress


While there are many stress reduction programs available to employees, one of the best ways to manage stress in the workplace is for employers and managers to learn and implement strategies to manage their own and then pass these techniques on to employees. Leading by example cannot be underestimated in an business environment where productivity and personal success depend on group behaviour.

Common Office Accidents and How to Prevent Them

Common Office Accidents and How to Prevent Them

Incidents and injuries in the workplace are preventable. Unfortunately, accidents and incidents are common in an office, although it may seem a safe environment. A number of ailments and problems can arise as a result of being seated for long periods of time; additionally, there are a number of other injuries that can be sustained when in an office environment.

Slips, Trips and Falls

The most common form of accident and source of injury in an office is caused by slips, trips and falls. Trips are most likely to arise within an office environment as a result of tripping over exposed electrical wiring, or an open drawer; perhaps falling off an unstable chair when bending, slipping on wet floors, or using a chair as a platform to stand on if an object is out of reach.

In order to avoid this, employees should ensure that they remain vigilant when traveling around the office, reporting any trip hazards to the Health & Safety officer for rectification. A stepladder should be used to obtain an object which is out of reach. If anything is spilt, then it should be cleaned up immediately to avoid slips.

Injuries Sustained From Improper Lifting

Incorrect lifting of items, even light objects, can cause injury. The most common injuries are back and shoulder strain, which can persist for weeks if not properly treated.

If a bulky or particularly heavy item needs to be lifted, an employee should ask one of his or her colleagues to help. To lift objects safely from the floor, workers should squat, hold the item securely and then straighten using their legs, not their back – which should be kept straight at all times. The same process is carried out in reverse when setting something down.

The video below demonstrates proper lifting techniques.

Bumps and Bruises

Many workers are also injured through bumping into objects, being struck by objects that have been thrown, or trapping fingers in places such as drawers or cupboards. Falling objects can cause injury if dropped on feet, and loose clothing or jewellery can become caught in office machinery.

These kinds of accidents can be avoided by staying alert and maintaining concentration on the task at hand. Potentially dangerous objects should be safely stored in locked cupboards when not being used, and guidance on how to use office equipment should be given to all employees.

Non-Ergonomic Workstations

Workstations that are not ergonomically friendly can cause lasting injuries and conditions, such as musculoskeletal problems, eyestrain and headaches. It is essential that workstations are designed so that the user can work comfortably, without risk of awkward stretching or limb movement.

To prevent these kinds of problems, it is important that the worker takes regular breaks, changing position and walking around to promote good circulation and reduce the risk of eyestrain. There are a number of basic checks that can be carried out to prevent the risk of injury.

  • Feet should be able to rest flat on the floor–a footrest can be used if needed;
  • Elbows should be able to rest on the desk at a 90-degree angle;
  • The top of the computer monitor should be at eye level;
  • Cushioned wrist supports can be used to prevent wrist strain.

Every office should have one or more Health & Safety officers, who are fully trained in the latest first aid procedures and treatments. These employees will be responsible for the treatment of any minor injuries, as well as the completion and maintenance of an accident log book.

These representatives will also be able to provide advice and guidance on how the business can improve, in order to reduce the occurrences of any accidents or incidents within the workplace. A First Aid kit should be kept on the premises at all times.

Alcohol Screenings in the Workplace

Drugs and alcohol in the workplace is a major issue many organizations face. Specifically, alcohol is even more prevalent in the workplace than drugs are. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health reveals that, compared to illicit drug users, there are over three times as many binge or heavy drinkers employed. In fact, over 80 percent of problem drinkers are full-time employees.

Problems Alcoholism Causes in the Workplace

Problem drinkers instigate billions in productivity losses, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This figure takes into account impaired workplace and domestic productivity, as well as alcohol-related premature death and work time lost by victims of alcohol-related incidents and those incarcerated for alcohol-related crimes.

Alcohol abuse also leads to augmented hospital costs and workers’ compensation and disability claims, as well as higher job turnover. Alcohol problems do not only affect the drinker, but also other employees. One-fifth of workers have been injured by, have had to increase their workload, or have had to cover for a problem drinker.

Alcohol Screenings Versus Drug Tests

Despite the fact that alcohol appears to be a larger problem in the workplace, more companies administer drug rather than alcohol tests. Pre-employment drug tests are twice as common as pre-employment alcohol screenings. Fifty-four percent of companies administer drug tests to their current employees, compared to the 36 percent who test for alcohol. One reason for this disparity is that alcohol testing is more inconsistent and problematical. This is because alcohol is dispelled from the body much more quickly than illicit drugs.

Alcohol Screenings

However, alcohol screenings may prompt some employees to lessen their drinking or to obtain treatment. One alcohol screening instrument is the ten question Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). This survey asks in-depth questions about frequency and quality of alcohol consumption, harmful consequences, and addictive symptoms. Screenings such as this one could be offered at company wellness programs and health fairs. Online resources may also supply other valid screening tests and provide recommendations and additional information about local treatment centers for those seeking assistance.

Employee Assistance Programs

Employee Assistance

In addition to alcohol screenings, another way employers can help those suffering from alcoholism is by utilizing Employee Assistance Programs. The majority of American organizations offer Employee Assistance Programs, which are meant to help workers who having personal problems that may be negatively impacting their job performance; originally EAP’s focused on alcoholism.

Alcoholism in the workplace is a serious problem for some organizations, and it is imperative that managers and supervisors find ways to deal with this issue.